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Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

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Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.