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Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

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Derivative

A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

D -Transition elements (metals)

B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table, sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .
For further information see Metals.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.