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Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

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Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Metathesis Reactions

Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new compounds, with no changes in oxidation number. Reactions in which the ions of two compounds exchange partners.

 

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Buret

A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.