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Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

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Phosphorus Oxychloride

Colorless to slightly yellow fuming liquid.

Mol. Wt.: 153.39
M.P.: 20C
B.P.: 105.1C
Density: 1.685 @ 15.5C
Vapor Pressure: 40 mm @ 27.3C
Vapor Density: 5.3
Used as the phosphorus source for phosphorus diffusion.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Bond Energy

The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.