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Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

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Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Electrolysis

Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.

Deuterium

An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Basic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable OH group.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.