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The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

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Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.