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The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

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Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

History of diamonds

Diamond has been known for about 5 thousand years. Historians suggest that it was first discovered in India in river placers. It has long been credited with magical properties, and the largest famous crystals and products from them are shrouded in a halo of mystical legends.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.