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Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

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Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.