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The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

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Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.

 

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

xenon hexafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF6, that melts at 50°C to a yellow liquid, and boils at 75°C.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.