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Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...



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Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.