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Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

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Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

xylose

A colorless, crystalline pentose sugar, C5H10O5, derived from xylan, straw, corncobs, etc., by treating with heated dilute sulfuric acid, and dehydrating to furfural if stronger acid is used.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.