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Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

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Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.