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The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

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Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Homogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.