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The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

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Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Coordination Compound or Complex

A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Deuterium

An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.