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The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

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Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Ester

A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.