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The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

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Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Heteronuclear

Consisting of different elements.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Silicones

Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.