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A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

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Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.