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A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

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Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Dispersing Medium

The solvent-like phase in a colloid.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.

Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.

Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.