A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.
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Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
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In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
The solid and liquid states.
Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.
Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)
The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.
An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.
The solvent-like phase in a colloid.
A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.
Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.
Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.
Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.
H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.
Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.
Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.
Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.
Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.
A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.
The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances
Describes processes that absorb heat energy.
A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.
Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.
Method of Initial Rates
Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.