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A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

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Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Deuterium

An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.