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A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

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Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.