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Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

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Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

PseudobinaryIonic Compounds

Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Equivalent Weight

An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.