Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
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In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.
A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.
Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.
A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.
Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.
A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.
Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.
Absolute Entropy (of a substance)
The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.
Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.
Anything that has mass and occupies space.
Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.
An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.
One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.
An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.
The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.
Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.
The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.
Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.
Different substances that have the same formula.