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Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

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Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Compound

A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.