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The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

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Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Phenol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an [OH] group bound to an aromatic raing.

 

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.