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The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

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Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Cathode Ray Tube

Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure, with electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode, produces cathode rays when high voltage is applied.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.