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An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

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Eluant or eluent

The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.