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An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

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Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.