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An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

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Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Deuterium

An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.