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The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

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Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.