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Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

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    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

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High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.


Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.


Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.


Reaction of a substance with water.


The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.


Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.


A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).


The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.