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Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

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Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.