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Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

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    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

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    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

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    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...



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Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.