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Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

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Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Potential Energy

Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.