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Liquefaction of vapor.

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Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Semiconductor

A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.