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The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.


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Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.


An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Electrolytic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution or pure liquid.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.