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The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

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Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Acidic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom. Acidic salt does not necessarily produce acidic solutions.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.