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A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

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Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Flux

A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.