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A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

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Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Zinc

Discovered: known in India and China before 1500 and to the Greeks and Romans before 20 BC as the copper-zinc alloy brass
Origin: The name is derived from the German ‘Zink’.
Atomic no: 30
Mass No: 65
Description: A grey metal with a blue tinge. World production exceeds 7 million tons a year, and it is used to galvanise iron to prevent it rusting. It is also employed in alloys and batteries, and as zinc oxide to stabilise rubber and plastics. Zinc is essential for all living things, and is important for growth and development. The average human body contains about 2.5 grams and takes in about 15 milligrams per day. Some foods have above average levels of zinc, including herring, beef, lamb, sunflower seeds and cheese.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

Formula Weight

The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.

 

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.