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A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.

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Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Flotation

Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Chemical Change

A change in which one or more new substances are formed.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.