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Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

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Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.

Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.

Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

How to keep flowers in a vase for long time

The best gift for a woman, as you know, is a beautiful bouquet of flowers. But the cut flowers at home quite quickly wither. But your favorite roses or tulips can keep their freshness if you use our advice. Chemistry and various chemical elements will help us in this difficult matter!

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.


A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.


Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.