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The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

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Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.


An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.


An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.