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The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

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Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.