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Different substances that have the same formula.

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Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Alcohol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Leveling Effect

Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.