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Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

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Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Bubbles

Have you ever noticed that soap bubbles go up in winter and fall down in summer? The reason is that warm air is lighter than cold. And in winter the difference between the air temperature in the room (especially near the windows) and the one you exhale into the bubble is enough to overcome the heaviness of its shell.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.