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Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

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Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.