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A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

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Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Secondary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that can be recharged, original reactanats can be regenerated be reversing the direction of the current flow.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.