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A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

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Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Homogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.