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A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...



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Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.