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The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

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Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.


A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.


A device for measuring pressure.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.