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The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.



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Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

xylic acid

Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

How to keep flowers in a vase for long time

The best gift for a woman, as you know, is a beautiful bouquet of flowers. But the cut flowers at home quite quickly wither. But your favorite roses or tulips can keep their freshness if you use our advice. Chemistry and various chemical elements will help us in this difficult matter!

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.