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The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

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Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.