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The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

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Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.