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The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

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Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Continuous Spectrum

Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Equivalent Weight

An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.


The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.