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The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

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Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Alkylbenzene

A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a benzene ring.

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.