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The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

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Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Amphiprotism

Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting donated protons.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.