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The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

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Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.