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Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

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Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.