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Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

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Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

All Chemicals - Chemical Glossary

The Chemical Glossary currently has 651 chemical entries. You may search the Chemical Glossary by entering the keyword in the search box or by browsing the entire chemical glossary by letter in alphabetical order.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.