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The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

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Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.