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The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

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Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.

 

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.