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The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

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Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

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Saccharic

of or derived from saccharin or a saccharine substance.

 

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.