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The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

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Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

xenon hexafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF6, that melts at 50°C to a yellow liquid, and boils at 75°C.

Heteronuclear

Consisting of different elements.