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The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

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Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals