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Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

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Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

xenon trioxide

A colorless, nonvolatile solid, XeO3, explosive when dry: in solution it is called xenic acid.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Homogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.

Ester

A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Saccharate

A compound formed by interaction of sucrose with a metallic oxide, usually lime, and useful in the purification of sugar.

 

Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.