Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.
An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.
The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.
Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.
A colorless, nonvolatile solid, XeO3, explosive when dry: in solution it is called xenic acid.
H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.
Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.
The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.
A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.
A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.
The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.
An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.
Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).
Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.
The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.
Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.
Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.
Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.
A compound formed by interaction of sucrose with a metallic oxide, usually lime, and useful in the purification of sugar.
Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.