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Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

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Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

xenon

A heavy, colorless, chemically inactive, monatomic gaseous element used for filling radio, television, and luminescent tubes. Symbol: Xe, at. wt.: 131.30, at. no.: 54.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.