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Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

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Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.