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Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

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Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Neutron

A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Nuclides

Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Iron

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations.

Origin : The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon ‘iren’, and the symbol from the Latin ‘ferrum’, meaning iron.
Description :Iron is an enigma - it rusts easily and yet is the most important of all metals, world production exceeds 700 million tons a year. Small amounts of carbon are added to iron to produce steel and when chromium.
is added to this, the result is non-corroding stainless steel (small amounts of nickel may also be added). Iron is also an essential element for all forms of life. The average human contains about 4 grams, much of which circulates as haemoglobin in the blood, the job of which is to carry oxygen from our lungs to where it is needed. If the diet does not contain 10 milligrams a day, anaemia will eventually develop. Foods such as liver, kidney, molasses, brewer’s yeast, cocoa and liquorice contain a lot of iron.
Atomic No:26 Mass No:56

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.