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Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

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Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.