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The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

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Carcinogen

A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Salt and its use in everyday life

Cooking salt is a product that is available in every kitchen, and it’s not as simple as it seems. The history of this product shows that it was valued like gold.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.

 

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.