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The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

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Helium

Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

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Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.