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The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

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Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Lone Pair

Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.