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The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

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Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Molar Solubility

Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Chemistry is a familiar school subject

Everyone liked to observe the reaction of reagents. But few know interesting facts about chemistry, which we will discuss in this article.

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

ytterbium

A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."

 

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.