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The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

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Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.

 

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.