The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.
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Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.
Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.
Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.
Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.
Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).
A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.
Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.
The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.
The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.
Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.
Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.
Poor electric and heat conductor.
Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.
All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.
Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.
Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.
Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.
A helium nucleus.
A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.
Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.