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The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

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Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Nuclides

Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.