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The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

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Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.

Salicylate

A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.