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The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

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Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.

 

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.