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An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

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Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Phenol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an [OH] group bound to an aromatic raing.