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An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

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Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

ytterbia

Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Lead Storage Battery

Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.