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An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

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The most expensive metal in the world

Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Semiconductor

A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.

Nuclide Symbol

Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.