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A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

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Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Compound

A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions. Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent elements.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Native State

Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.