A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.
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Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.
A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.
Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.
Coordination Compound or Complex
A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.
Absolute Entropy (of a substance)
The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.
Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.
Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.
The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.
High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.
Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.
A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.
The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.
Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)
The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom. where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2
The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.
A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."
Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H
Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.
A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.
The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.
Conjugated Double Bonds
Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.