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A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

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Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Silicones

Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Lead Storage Battery

Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles.

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.