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A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

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Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.