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A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

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Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Electrolysis

Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Manometer

A two-armed barometer.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.