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A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

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Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.