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A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

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Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Molar Solubility

Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.