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A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

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Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.