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A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

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Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Hydride

A binary compound of hydrogen.

 

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Ion

An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.