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A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

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Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

D -Transition elements (metals)

B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table, sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti .
For further information see Metals.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.