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H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

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Semiconductor

A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.