H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.
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Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.
Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V
The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.
Band of Stability
Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.
Outer Orbital Complex
Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.
A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.
Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.
van der Waals' Equation
An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.
Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.
Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.
Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.
Common Ion Effect
Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.
Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.
A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.
Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.
First Law of Thermodynamics
The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.
Le Chatelier's Principle
States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.
The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances
Effective Nuclear Charge
The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.