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Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

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Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point