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Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

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Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)

Representation of the core of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Basic Anhydride

The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.