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Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

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Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Nuclide Symbol

Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Derivative

A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.