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Any of six colorless, crystalline, isomeric acids having the formula C9H10O2, derived from xylene.

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Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.