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100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

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Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Metathesis Reactions

Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new compounds, with no changes in oxidation number. Reactions in which the ions of two compounds exchange partners.

 

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.