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100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Secondary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that can be recharged, original reactanats can be regenerated be reversing the direction of the current flow.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4: colorless, oily liquid, boiling point 330C. A 96 percent solution is used in the laboratory.

Fire Hazard: This is a very powerful, acidic oxidizer which can Ignite or even explode on contact with many materials, i.e. acetic acid ,acetone+ HNOs, alcohols, + H202, NH4OH, HCL, NaOH, and others.

Sulfuric acid has a wide range of uses and plays a part in the production of nearly all manufactured goods.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.