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100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

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  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...



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xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.