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The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

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Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.