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The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

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A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Two chemistry egg tricks

The French have a saying: "You cannot cook an omelet without breaking eggs."Chemists hearing this proverb totally disagree. There is nothing easier than cleaning an egg without breaking its shell.
Probably our readers have already guessed how to do this, as it’s known that the hard shell of the egg is carbon dioxide, like chalk and marble.


The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.


Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.


A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 amu.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).


Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V