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The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

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Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Potential Energy

Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position, condition or composition.