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A colorless, crystalline pentose sugar, C5H10O5, derived from xylan, straw, corncobs, etc., by treating with heated dilute sulfuric acid, and dehydrating to furfural if stronger acid is used.

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Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.