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A colorless, crystalline pentose sugar, C5H10O5, derived from xylan, straw, corncobs, etc., by treating with heated dilute sulfuric acid, and dehydrating to furfural if stronger acid is used.

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Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.