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Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

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Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Electrochemistry

Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Nitric Acid

HNO3: A strong acid, it is toxic and can cause severe burns. Transparent colorless or yellowish, fuming, suffocating, caustic and corrosive liquid. Nitric acid boiling point is 83C. A 70 percent solution is used in the S.S.E. laboratory for junction depth measurements. Nitric acid is also present in the metal etch solution used for the Aluminum etch procedure.

Chemical Change

A change in which one or more new substances are formed.

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Coordination Compound or Complex

A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.