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Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion) among regions of high electron density.

 

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Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.