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Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

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Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Alcohol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom.

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Heteronuclear

Consisting of different elements.