Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.
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The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.
The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.
Molecular Orbital Theory
A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.
Strong Field Ligand
Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.
An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.
A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.
High Spin Complex
Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.
The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.
Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.
Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.
Equation of State
An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.
Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group IIA metals
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.
A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.
Conjugated Double Bonds
Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.
An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.
A common type of dry cell.
A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.
Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.