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Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

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Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Density

Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Film badge

A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing radiation.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.