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Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

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Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Silicones

Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.