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Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

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Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Nuclides

Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.