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Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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Most Popular

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

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Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.