User Rating: 0 / 5

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive
 

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Latest Articles

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...



Most Popular

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Deuterium

An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Homogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.

High Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.