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The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

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Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Strong Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.

 

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Native State

Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.

 

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.