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The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

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Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Amphoterism

The ability to react with both acids and bases.Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Strong Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.

 

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.