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The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

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Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Flux

A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.