Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.
The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.
The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.
Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.
Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.
A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.
Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.
Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.
The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.
Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.
Unit of electrical charge.
The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.
A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.
Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.
Transition State Theory
Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.
Law of Conservation of Matter
There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.
A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.
A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.
Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).