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Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

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Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.