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Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

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Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.

Dry Cells

Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and so on, many are Leclanche cells.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.