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Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

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Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Leveling Effect

Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.