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Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

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Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Henry's Law

The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

ytterbium

A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."