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Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

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Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Corrosion

Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture.

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Coulomb

Unit of electrical charge.

Formula Weight

The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.

 

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Amide

Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.

 

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).