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Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

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Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Binary Compound

A compound consisting of two elements, may be ionic or covalent.

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.