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Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

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Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.